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A Legacy of Crisis
Farmer Solutions, Corporate Resistance

by George Naylor and Bert Henningson, Jr.
Ames, Iowa


1. Matthew Josephson. The Robber Barons, (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1962).

2. John D. Hicks, The Populist Revolt, A History of the Farmers' Alliance and the People’s Party. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961) p.57.

3. Lawrence Goodwyn, The Populist Moment, a Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).

4. Everett E. Luoma, The Farmer Takes a Holiday, The Story of the National Farmers Holiday Association and the Farmers' Strike of 1932-33, (New York: Exposition Press, 1967).

5. USDA, History of Agricultural Price Support and Adjustment Programs, 1933-84, Bulletin Number 485, Economic Research Service, Washington, D.C., 1984, pp. 8-9.

6. J. Kloppenberg and Geisler, "The Agricultural Ladder: Agrarian Ideology and the Changing Structure of U.S. Agriculture,” Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 1, 1985.

7. Ibid. USDA, pp. 12-13.

8. USDA, Agricultural Prices Release, Crop Reporting Board of the Statistical Reporting Service, Washington, D.C., January 31. 1986, p.31-32.

9. Representative Harold D. Cooley, “A Congressional Expert's View ‘I can see farm bankruptcy' if price supports are removed,” U.S. News and World Report. August 30, 1957,p. 89.

10. Trudy Huskamp Peterson, Agricultural Exports, Farm Income, and the Eisenhower Administration, (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1979) pp. 11-12.

11. USDA, National Financial Summary 1984, Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector, ERS, ECIFS 4-3, Washington, D.C., pp. 11, 21.

12. USDA, Farm Sector Review, 1984, Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector, ERS, ECIFS 4-2, Washington, D.C., pp.4, 16.

13. Ibid., USDA, ECIFS 4-3.

14. James Wessel, Trading the Future, Farm Exports and The Concentration of Economic Power In Our Food System, (San Francisco: Institute for Food and Development Policy. 1983). p. 25.

15. Nebraska Wheat Board, Nebraska Wheat Growers Proposal, Supply Management and Price Stability Program, Developed by Chase Econometrics, (Lincoln: Nebraska Wheat Board, P.O. Box 94912, Lincoln, NE 68509, October 10. 1984). p. 20.

16. Richard Gilmore, Poor Harvest: The Clash of Policies and Interests in the Grain Trade, (New York: Longman, 1982), p 24, as cited in Trading the Future, p.91.

17. Ibid., USDA. ECIFS 4-3. p.11.

18. World Food Trade And U.S. Agriculture, 1960-1984, (Ames, Iowa: The World Food Institute, Iowa State University, 1985). pp. 20-23.

19. The Impact of the Latin American Debt Crisis on the U.S. Economy, A staff study prepared for the use of the Joint Economic Committee, (Washington, D.C.: Congress of the United States, May 10.1986). pp. 13, 14.

20. U.S. Farm Policy and World Hunger, The Deadly Connection, (Minneapolis: League of Rural Voters, 1985.)

21. William H. Meyers, Emerging Trade Policy Issues: The Hard Choices, (Ames: The Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, February, 1986), p.4

22. Ibid. p. 7

23. Jon F. Scheid, “Cargill most visible advocate of change,“ Feedstuffs, January 7, 1985, vol.5 number1, pp.1, 4, 31.

24. Ibid.

25. Schutz, Mary Neal, editor, Plowing Up a Storm, The History of Midwestern Farm Activism, a booklet to accompany a 90-minute film by the same name (Lincoln: Nebraska Educational Television Network, 1985).

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