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The Trouble with Black Boys:
The Role and Influence of Environmental and
Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance
of African American Males

Footnotes & Bibliography

by Pedro Antonio Noguera
Cambridge, Massachusetts


1. (Skolnick and Currie 1994),pp442-424; Earls F. 1994 p.6.
2. (National Research Council 1989 p 416-420. ; Poussaint and Alexander 2000) p. 22.
3. (Kaplan, et. al. 1987 p. 141); Centers for Disease Control 1988 p. 17; Auerbach, et. Al. 2000 p. 2
4. (Roper 1991)p. 12; Skolnick and Currue 1994 p. 416.
5. Auerbach et. al. 2000 p. 3; National Research Council 1989 p. 417,
6. (Spivak, et. al. 1988 p. 12).
7. (Wilson 1987 p.31; Massey and Denton 1993 p.p 17-41; Moss and Tilly 1993 p. 27 Hacker 1992 pp. 26 - 29; Feagin and Sikes 1994 pp.33 - 42).
8. (Meier, Stewart and England 1989 pp. 40-57).
9. (National Research Council 1989 pp. 339; Carnoy 1994 p. 61.
10. (Milofsky 1974 p.63),
11. (Oakes 1985 p.74); Polllard 1993 pp. 341-356.
12. Pollard 1993 p. 345
13. (Jencks and Phillips 1998 pp. 45-62).
14. Coleman pp. 16-33
15. (Brookover and Erickson 1969; Morrow and Torres 1995).
16. (Brookover and Erickson 1969). Meier, 19989 p. 23
17. (Lee 2000 pp. 43-48).
18. (Edmonds 1979 p. 4)
19. (Friere 1972 p. 88),
20. (Carnoy 1994 pp 105-11).
21. (Taylor-Gibbs 1988 p.212).
22. (Jackson 1998 p.14).
23. (Garbarino 1999 p. 67).
24. (Harry, et. al. 2000 p. 14).
25. (Harry, et. al. p. 7).
26. (Harry et. al. 2000 p. 23).
27. (Meier, et. al. 1989 p. 47).
28. (Hilliard 1976 pp. 23-34).
29. (Sandler 2000 p. 16)
30. (Oakes 1985 p. 53).
31. (Earls 1991 p. 14; Garbarino 1999 p. 26).
32. (Ogbu 1987 p. 23).
33. (Hoberman 1997 p. 48,49).
34. (Ogbu 1990 p. 29; Fordham 1996 p. 12).
35. (Wilson 1978 pp.22-46; Wilson 1987 pp. 12-35; Massey and Denton 1993 pp.7-24; Tabb 1970 pp. 11-36).
36. (Anderson 1990 p.34).
37. (Lewis 1966 pp. 74-88; Glazer and Moynihan 1963 pp. 221-267)
38. (Murray 1984 pp 147-254).
39. (Ryan 1976 pp. 32-46),
40. (McLeod 1987 p. 25).
41. (Morrow and Torres 1994 pp. 112-134).
42. (Willis 1977 pp. 62-81) Levinson, et. al. 1996 pp. 21-26, etc.
43. (Luker 1996 pp. 223-236).
44. Currie and Skolnick 191994 p. 429
45. Erickson 1968 p. 32 , Cross 1991 pp. 13-19
46. Goffman 1959 pp. 23-34
47. (Taylor-Gibbs 1988 pp. 113-124; Kunjufu 1985 p. 23; Anderson 1990 pp. 23-36).
48. Giroux 1983 pp. 23- 36
49. (Levinson, et. al. 1996 p.12).
50. (Spring 1994 p. 34; Apple 1982 p. 47).
51. (Thorne 1993 p. 22)
52. (Spring 1994 p. 16; Lowen 1995 pp. 43-51).
53. (Apple 1982 p.64),
54. (Dyson1994p. 21).
55. (Troyna and Carrington 1990 p. 18).
56. (Miles 1989 pp. 32-47)
57. (Troyna and Carrington 1990 p. 73).
58. (Dyson 1994 p. 34; Thorne 1993 p. 45).
59. (Peshkin 1991 p. 65).
60. (Erickson 1968 p. 18),
61. (Tatum 1992 p. 39; Cross 1991 pp. 34-49).
62. (Metz 1978 p.p. 221; Peshkin 1991 p. 46).
63. Phelan, et. al. 1998p. 10-18.
64. (Steinberg 1996).
65. (Peshkin 1991).
66. (Fordham 1996 p. 47; Ogbu 1987 p. 87; Solomon 1992 p. 22; Steinberg 1996 p. 185),
67. (Ferguson 1999 p. 134),
68. (Fordham 1996 p. 46; Ogbu 1988 p. 34).
69. (Kao and Tienda 1998 p. 36; Anderson1990 p. 249
70. (Sizemore 1988 p. 45; Edmonds 1979 p.11).
71. (Noguera 2000).
72. Mickelson(1989) pp. 42-49.
73. (MetLife Survey 2000 p. 184).
74. (Wienstein, et. al. 1995 pp. 124, 125).
75. (Ladson-Billings 1994 p. 36; Foster 1997 p. 122; Lee 2000p. 57). To
76. University of California Report of Black Student Achievement (unpublished manuscript by Michelle Foster, February, 2001)
77. (Sizemore 1988; Murphy and Hallinger 1985)
78. Sizemore
79. (Ron Edmonds, (1979, May 5). “Effective Schools for the Urban Poor.” Educational Leadership, 37(1), pg. 20.)
81. (McPartland and Nettles 1991).
82. (Watson and Smitherman 1996).
83. (Ampim 1993; Myers 1988).
84. (Boykin 1983).
85. (Noguera 1995).
86. Geneva Smitherman (1977 p.234)
87. (Kunjufu 1985 p. 16; Madhabouti 1993 p. 88; Majors 1992 p. 92; West 1993 p. 47) have
88. (Anderson 1990 p. 38).
89. (Kunjufu 1985 p. 18; Hilliard 1991 p. 113)
90. Ron Ferguson (2000) p. 23.


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Published in In Motion Magazine May 13, 2002

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