See our Photo of the Week (and archive of more) books we recommend

Opinion Advertize Permission
To be notified of new articles Survey Store About Us

Footnotes and References

Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter:
The Role and Significance of Race
in the Racial Achievement Gap

by Pedro Noguera
New York, New York


1. Changing racial identity by moving across state lines literally happened to the former Dean of Ohio State Law School . For a narrative on his life history and experience dealing with the malleability and ambiguity of American racial categories see: Beyond the Color Line.

2. I am not implying that the physical differences associated with race -- skin color, hair texture, etc. are irrelevant, rather I am arguing that the social significance associated with these differences varies over time. For a discussion on how phenotype and the physical characteristics associated with race relate to the idea that race can be regarded as a social construct see by Edward Fergus. 

3. For the purpose of this paper I will use the term Black rather than African American to identify students of African descent because the term Black includes students of African and Caribbean heritage. In many school districts data on student performance do not draw distinctions within racial groups based on immigration status or national origin. 

4. District names are pseudonyms

5. The finding does not suggest that the students who did not pass at the Regents level were not eligible to graduate as the Local Diploma option was available for those students who did not score at the passing mark on the Regents exams. Students who earned a Regents Diploma, however, were more competitive applicants for college admission than students earning Local Diplomas.


Bombaderi, M. (2005) “Summers Remarks on Women Draw Fire” in The Boston Globe, January 17.

Cosby, Bill and A. Poussaint (2007) Come On People:

Cowley, K. & M. Meehan. (2003). Student achievement gaps in high-performing schools: Differences as a function of the professional staff as a learning community. Paper presented at the Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education (Waikiki Beach, HI, January 7-10, 2003).

Darling-Hammond, L. (2004). Standards, accountability, and school reform. Teachers College Record, 106, 1047-1085.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2007). Third Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research - The Flat Earth and Education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. Educational Researcher, 36, 318-334.

Duster, T. (2003) Backdoor to Eugenics. New York: Routledge.

Education Trust (2002) Dispelling the Myth revisited: preliminary Findings from a nationwide Analysis of High-Flying Schools. Washington, DC: Education trust.

Epstein, J. (1994). Theory to practice: School and family partnerships lead to school improvement and school success. In C. Fagnano & B. Werber, (Eds.) School, family, and community interactions: A view from the firing lines Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Farkas, G. (2004) “The Black-White Test Score Gap,” Contexts

Ferguson, R. (2002). What doesn’t meet the eye: Understanding and addressing racial achievement gaps in high achieving suburban schools. Retrieved January, 2008, from North Central Regional Educational Laboratory website, available online at

Ferguson, Ronald (2007) Toward Excellence With Equity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fischer, C. (1996) Inequality By Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Fredrickson, G. (1981) White Supremacy. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Gould, A. (1981) The Mis-measure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.

Heckman, J.A. & P. A. LaFontaine. (2007). The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels. Discussion Paper No. 3217, The Institute for the Study of Labor.

Hedges, L. & A. Nowell. (1999). Changes in the Black-White Gap in Achievement Test Scores. Sociology of Education, 72, 111-135.

Jencks, C. (1972) Inequality. New York: Harper Books.

Jencks, C. & M. Philips (Eds.). (1998). The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Lehman, N. (1996) The Big Test. New York:

Lipman, P. (1998) Race, Class, and Power in School Restructuring. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Lewis, O. (1966) La Vida: A Puerto Rican family in the culture of poverty -- San Juan and New York. New York, NY: Random House.

Maeroff, G. (1994). On matters of body and mind: Overcoming disincentives to a teaching career. In D. Walling (Ed.), Teachers as Leaders: Perspectives on the professional development of teachers. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Massey, D. (1998). America’s Apartheid and the urban underclass. In F. Pincus & H. Ehrlich (Eds.) Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending views on prejudice, discrimination, and ethnoviolence. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Mc Whorter, J. (2000) Losing the Race. New York: New Press.

Meier, K., J. Stewart, & R. England. (1989). Race, Class, and Education: The Politics of Second-Generation Discrimination. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Miller, L. (1995). An American Imperative: Accelerating minority educational advancement. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Noddings, N. (1992). The Challenge to Care in Schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Noguera, P. (2001) “The Elusive Quest for Equity and Excellence.” Education and Urban Society, Vol. 34, No. 1 November, pp. 18-41.

Noguera, P. (2003). City Schools and the American Dream: Reclaiming the promise of public education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Ogbu, J. (1987) Opportunity Structure, Cultural Boundaries, and Literacy. In Language, Literacy and Culture: Issues of Society and Schooling, edited by J. Langer. Norwood, NJ: Ablex press.

Ogbu, J. & A. Davis. (2003). Black American Students in An Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1st edition

Omi, M and H. Winant 1986. Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge

Orfield, G. and D. Losen (2002) Racial Inequality and Special Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Orfield, G. and C. Lee. (2006). Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

Osterman, K. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research. 70, 323-367.

Roediger, D 1991. The Wages of Whiteness. New York: Verso Press.

Rothstein, R. (2004) Class and School. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

Sizer, T. (1984) Horace’s Compromise. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin

Steele, S. (1996) The Content of Our Character. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Steinberg, L. (1996) Beyond the Classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Takaki, Ronald (1989) Strangers fro a Different Shore. New York: Penguin.

Treisman, U.

Twombly, R. (1971) Blacks in White America. New York: David McKay Company.

Wheelock, A. (1992) Crossing the Tracks. New York: New Press.

Zinn, H. (1980) A People’s History of the United States. New York: Harper.

Published in In Motion Magazine September 2, 2008.

Back to:

Email, Opinions & Discussion

If you have any thoughts on this or would like to contribute to an ongoing discussion in the
E-mail, Opinions & Discussion column click here to send e-mail to

In Unity/NPC Productions/Links

What is New? || Affirmative Action || Art Changes || Autonomy: Chiapas - California ||
Community Images || Education Rights || E-mail, Opinions and Discussion ||
En español || Essays from Ireland || Global Eyes || Healthcare ||
Human Rights/Civil Rights || Piri Thomas ||
Photo of the Week || QA: Interviews || Region || Rural America ||

Search || Donate || To be notified of new articles || Survey ||
In Motion Magazine's Store || In Motion Magazine Staff ||
In Unity Book of Photos ||
Links Around The World || OneWorld / US ||
NPC Productions

Copyright © 1995-2012 NPC Productions as a compilation. All Rights Reserved.