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Walking Together:
Chican@ Artists and the Zapatistas
The Story of the Encuentro Chican@-Zapatista
by Roberto Flores
El Sereno, California

Footnotes and References


1. Comite Calndestino del EZLN, (1993, Dec. 31), Primera Declaracion de la Selva Lancandoa, [On Line] available: <>

2. See Jose Gil Olmos, La Jornada, Dec. 2, 1997, “CIHMA: operan en el país 14 organizaciones guerrilleras.” El Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de los Movimientos Armados (CIHMA) informó que existen en el país al menos 14 organizaciones que actúan en igual número de estados.

3. Ten million of Mexico's 93 million people are indigenous. Ninety percent of the other 83 million are of mixed descent.

4. See: Segunda Declaración de la Selva Lancandona (Jun, 1994). This Declaration was issued shortly before the Congreso Nacional Democrático at which it was decided by civil society there that armed struggle was not the solution and should be averted and that the Zapatista army would be utilized in strictly a self-defensive manner.

5. Zapatismo is keenly aware of the limitations of state reform, and of the central pit-fall of reformism: relying on reforming a corrupt system. Zapatistas consider a reform centered strategy to be ineffectual because true and profound structural changes go contrary to a system, which revolves around the exploitation and oppression to survive (CCRI, 1996).

6. This is possibly due to the socio-economic “Mexican” treatment of many of the non-Mexican Latinos working class who fall and fit right into the particular historic mold of oppression shaped around the specific economic exploitation and racist treatment of people from Mexico (Garcia, 1997). It is popular belief in the barrio that, many non-Latinos, particularly white administrative sector, can tell no difference between Salvadoreños, Guatemaltecos, and Mexicanos. In the barrio it’s common to hear the cliché: “to a white cop patrolling the barrio we’re all meskins.”

7. See “The Hispanic Population in the US.” A census report prepared by Roberto R. Ramirez and Melissa Therrien

8. See 550 years of Chicano History

9. See Center for Strategic and International Studies Website –more on Global Migration push and pull factors, can be found at

10. Supporting this assertion, Vigil (1998) explains that the word “Chicano” comes from the Indian pronunciation of the abbreviation of Mexicano or Xicano

11. Perhaps this is related to recent explosion in Southern California of indigenous dance groups, perhaps more numerous in Los Angeles alone than in all of Mexico. The previous proliferation of baile folkloricos and mariachi groups in the Southwest during the last 30 years can also be seen as a testament to the shift. This is also an indicator to me that within this general effort to resist oppression there is a deeper level of resistance that is growing, one that emphasizes the indigenous and black heritage.

12. See Chiapas: The Southeast in Two Winds -A Storm and a Prophecy. Written in 1992 but not published until January 1, 1994. Can be found at<>.

13. See website Study for the Center of Political Graphics. Can be found at

14. I do not identify CX by name because she has requested caution from persons doing academic work that can be abused by United Stated government agencies within which there exists elements that are anxious to identify the Zapatistas as an anti-United States military force, perhaps even (at one point in the future) as terrorists.


Acuna, Rudy (1971) Occupied America. Harper and Row

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indigena (June, 1994), Segunda Declaracion de la Selva Lacandona, [On Line] available: <>

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indigena (Jan, 1995), Tercera Declaracion de la Selva Lacandona, [On Line] available: <>

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Freire, Paulo (1968, 1993) Pedagogy of the Oppressed: New Revised 20th -- Anniversary Edition. Continuum. New York

Garcia, I. (1997) Chicanismo: The Forging of a Militant Ethos among Mexican Americans. The University of Arizona Press

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Ramirez, R and Therrien, M. (March 2001) The Hispanic Population in the US Census Report

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Stromquist, N. (1996) “Mapping Gendered Spaces in Third World Educational Interventions.” Found in Rolland G. P. (1996). Social Cartography: Mapping Ways of Seeing Social and Educational Change. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London.

Stromquist, N., Monkman, K. (2002) Education in a Globalized World: The Connectivity of Economic Power, Technology and Knowledge. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Ox2 9RU, UK

Stromquist, N., ed. (2000) Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Ox2 9RU, UK

Stromquist N. (2004) “The Educational Nature of Feminist Action.” In Foley, G. (2004) Dimensions of Adult Learning: Adult Education and Training in a Global Era. Allen & Unwin. Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia

Zebechi, R. (2003) “Los Impactos Del Zapatismo en Latino America.” La Fogata Digital. Can be found at

Published in In Motion Magazine April 3, 2005.