See our Photo of the Week (and archive of more) Buy the eBook of "and the echo follows"

Opinion Advertize Permission
To be notified of new articles Survey Store About Us

Footnotes and References

Chicano Artists and Zapatistas Walk Together
Asking, Listening, Learning:

The Role of Transnational Informal Learning Networks
In the Creation of A Better World

by Roberto Gonzaléz Flores
Los Angeles, California


1. Comité Clandestino del EZLN, (1993, Dec. 31), Primera Declaración de la Selva Lancandoa, [On Line] available: <>

2. Sonia Alvarez includes in her framework developed during her study of women’s movements in Brazil.

3. Although the formal system at times exhibits the study and reflection of emancipatory struggle, such as the cases of Chican@ Studies, Women’s Studies, Labor Studies, etc., neoliberal policies exhibit more intolerance to self-critique. Although the formal academy is full of courageous scholars involved in the reflection of grassroots struggles, they are under-going pressure from market imperatives to “tone down their political critique.”

4. In 1996, the Zapatistas initiated the first of several intercontinental encuentros against neoliberalism and for humanity. Over 3,000 grassroots activists, from over 40 countries responded (Notes from November, 2003). Braving the military encirclement of over 60,000 Mexican troops, ubiquitous military check points, known dangers of paramilitary attacks and bad weather, they all converged in the La Realidad, deep in the Lancandon Jungle. About 80 Chicanos attended that first intercontinental conference, whose objective was to share and learn from each other’s struggle in this era of globalized oppression (Notes from November, 2003). Since then there have been several other Intercontinental Conferences including the Encuentro Chican@ -Zapatista in August of 1997, in which, over 120, mostly, Los Angeles based artists, participated.

5. One of the main slogans of the villagers from San Salvador, Atenco, Mexico, situated in the municipality of Texcoco, who successfully defeated a federal, eminent domain decree (2001) to develop an international airport on their land near Mexico City was “Nunca Más Una Lucha Aislada,” (never more an isolated struggle) (Flores, unpublished Interview, 2002). According to their account, the intervention and solidarity of national and international civil society was key to their victory. In this sense, given its intersubjective, interdependent, and inclusive nature, the network also functions as an incubator politically supporting and protecting the strategic autonomy of all local struggles.

6. See Siete Palabras, Can be found at

7. See Jose Gil Olmos, La Jornada, Dec. 2, 1997, “CIHMA: operan en el país 14 organizaciones guerrilleras.” El Centro de Investigaciones Históricas de los Movimientos Armados (CIHMA) informó que existen en el país al menos 14 organizaciones que actúan en igual número de estados. (There are 14 armed guerilla organizations that operate in the country. The Center of Historic Research of Armed Movements (CIHMA) inform that there exists at least that act in as many states.)

8. Approximately, ten million of Mexico's 93 million people are indigenous. Ninety percent of the other 83 million are of mixed descent.

9. See: Segunda Declaración de la Selva Lancandona (June, 1994). This Declaration was issued shortly before the Congreso Nacional Democrático at which it was decided by civil society there that armed struggle was not the solution and should be averted and that the Zapatista army would be utilized in strictly a self-defensive manner.

10. Zapatismo is keenly aware of the limitations of state reform, and of the central pit-fall of reformism: relying on reforming a corrupt system. Zapatistas consider a reform centered strategy to be ineffectual because true and profound structural changes go contrary to a system, which revolves around the exploitation and oppression to survive (CCRI, 1996).

11. This is possibly due to the socio-economic “Mexican” treatment of many of the non-Mexican Latinos working class who fall and fit right into the particular historic mold of oppression shaped around the specific economic exploitation and racist treatment of people from Mexico (Garcia, 1997). It is popular belief in the barrio that, many non-Latinos, particularly white administrative sector, can tell no difference between Salvadoreños, Guatemaltecos, and Mexicanos. In the barrio it’s common to hear the cliché: “to a white cop patrolling the barrio we’re all meskins.”

12. See “The Hispanic Population in the US.” A census report prepared by Roberto R. Ramirez and Melissa Therrien.

13. See 550 years of Chicano History.

14. See Center for Strategic and International Studies Website -- more on Global Migration push and pull factors, can be found at

15. Supporting this assertion, Vigil (1998) explains that the word “Chicano” comes from the Indian pronunciation of the abbreviation of Mexicano or Xicano.

16. Perhaps this is related to recent explosion in Southern California of indigenous dance groups, perhaps more numerous in Los Angeles alone than in all of Mexico. The previous proliferation of baile folklóricos and mariachi groups in the Southwest during the last 30 years can also be seen as a testament to the shift. This is also an indicator to me that within this general effort to resist oppression there is a deeper level of resistance that is growing, one that emphasizes the indigenous and black heritage.

17. See Chiapas: The Southeast in Two Winds-A Storm and a Prophecy. Written in 1992 but not published until January 1, 1994. Can be found at

18. See website Study for the Center of Political Graphics. Can be found at

19. I do not identify CX by name because she has requested caution from persons doing academic work that can be abused by United Stated government agencies within which there exists elements that are anxious to identify the Zapatistas as an anti-United States military force, perhaps even (at one point in the future) as terrorists.


Acuña, R. (1971). Occupied America. Harper and Row.

Almaguer, T. (1994). Racial Faultlines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California by Thomas Almaguer (1994).

Apple, M. (1999). Education in the Market: Free Markets, Flea Markets and Supermarkets Rhetorical Reforms: Markets, Standards and Inequality. Comparative Education, I(2).

Avila, A. (2005). Socially Conscious Bands Can Teach You a Lot. In L.A. Youth, January-February 2005. Los Angeles Unified School District.

Aztlán Underground. (1998). Ik Otic. Can be found at

Batalla, B. (1992). México Profundo: Reclaiming a Civilization. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas PO Box 7819.

Bellinghausen, H. (1/7/2006). Suspende el EZLN periplo por la muerte de Ramona. La Fogata. Can be found at

Big Frente Zapatista. (1997). Plan General de Los Encuentros Culturales Chican@-Indígena Zapatista: Misión, Visión, Premisas y Metas: La Reconstrucción a través de la Autodeterminación.

Broyles-Gonzalez, Y. (1994). El Teatro Campesino Theater in the Chicano Movement. University of Texas Press.

Burke, B. (1999). Antonio Gramsci and Informal Education. Can be found at

Castells, M. (1997). The Information Age, Economy, Society and Culture: The Rise of the Network Society. MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indígena (CCRI) del EZLN. (1993, Dec. 31). Primera Declaración de la Selva Lancandona, [On Line] available:

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indigena. (June, 1994). Segunda Declaracion de la Selva Lacandona. [On Line] available:

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indigena. (Jan, 1995). Tercera Declaracion dela
Selva Lacandona, [On Line] available: <>.

Comite Clandestino Revolucionario Indigena. (2005). La Sexta Declaración de La
Selva Lancandona. [On Line] available at

Darder, A. (1991). Culture and Power in the Classroom: A Critical Foundation for
Bilingual Education. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Eastside Café. (2001). Eastside Café Vision and Mission Statement. Can be found at <>.

Enciso, A. (27 April, 2004). Emigran al Dia 600 Campesinos. La Jornada. Can be
found at

Estación Libre. (no date). Estación Libre Mission Statement.

Esteva, G. (1992). Development. In The Development Dictionary. Zed Books, London.

Esteva, G. (1994). Cronica del Fin de Una Guerra. Editorial Posada, S.A. de C.V. Calle 1 No. 42, Calle de Los Pinos, Mexico, D.F.

Esteva, G. (1997). The Meaning and Scope of The Struggle for Autonomy. Can be found at'Gustavo%20Esteva

Esteva, G. (1997a). The Zapatistas and People’s Power. Can be found at Multiversity at

Esteva, G. (1998). Grassroots Post-Modernism: Remaking the Soil of Cultures. Zed Books, London.

Esteva, G. (2001). The Revolution of the New Commons: Beyond Development, Beyond Economy, Beyond the Individual Self, Beyond the Nation State. Can be found at

Esteva, G. (2003). A Flower in the Hands of the People. New Internationalist 360: Reinventing Power/ The Nation-State. Retrieved on August 2, 2006 from <>.

Esteva, G. (2005). Celebration of Zapatismo. Ediciones Basta. Oaxaca, Oaxaca

Esteva G. (2007). Planeta Tierra: movimientos antisistémicos. Presentation made at El Primer Coloquio Internacional In Memoriam Andres Aubrey, San Cristobal de las Casas. Can be found at

Esteva, G., Prakash, M.S. & Stuchul, D.L. (2004). From A Pedagogy for Liberation to Liberation from Pedagogy can be found at in several websites including:

Feagin, J., Orum, A., & Sjoberg, G. (Eds.). (1991). A case for case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Foley, G. (1999). Learning in Social Action: A Contribution to Understanding Informal Education. Zed Books. London & New York.

Foley, G. (2004). Dimensions of Adult Learning: Adult Education and Training in a Global Era. Allen & Unwin. Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia.

Freire, P. (1968, 1970, 1993). Pedagogy of the Oppressed: New Revised 20th – Anniversary Edition. Continuum. New York.

Garcia, I. (1997). Chicanismo: The Forging of a Militant Ethos among Mexican Americans. The University of Arizona Press.

Geertz, C. (1973). Thick Description: Toward an Interpretative Theory of Culture. In The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Gonzalez-Casanova, P. (2003). El Colonialismo Interno: (una redifinicion). Revista Rebeldia (2003) #12 can be found at

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from Prison Notebooks. International Publishers, New York. translated by Quintin Hoare can be found at <Antonio Gramsci Internet Archive ( 2001>

Griswold del Castillo, R. McKenna, T., & Yarbro-Bejarano, Y. (Eds.). (1991). Chicano art: Resistance and Affirmation (CARA), 1965-1985. Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Wight Art Gallery.

Hernandez, N.L. (2002). Una artista que hace visible lo invisible: La sonrisa de Arundhati Roy. La Jornada, Masosarie No. 322.

Holloway, J. (1998). Dignity’s Revolt. Can be found at

Holloway, J. (2002). Change the World Without Taking Power: The Meaning of Revolution Today: Pluto Press (p/bk).

Holloway, J. (2005). Urban Zapatismo. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 29:1. Can be found at

Huntington, S. (2000). Reconsidering Immigration Is Mexico a Special Case? Center for Immigration Studies. Can be found at

La Jornada (1996). Entregó Marcos a Ramona a la Cocopa; la Cruz Roja se desligó a última hora.

Lenin, V. I., State and Revolution (New York: International Publishers Co., Inc., 1932).

Lenkersdorf, C. (1996). Los Hombres Verdaderos: Voces y Testimonios Tojolabales. Mexico D.F., Mexico: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.

Lumis, C. (2006). The Smallest Army Imaginable. In A Symposium on the Year That Was. Can be found at <>.

Mayo, P. (1998). Gramsci, Feire & Adult Education: Possibilities For Transformative Action. Zed Books. London & New York.

Marcos, S.C.I. (May, 1994). Quien es Marcos? Can be found at

Marcos, S.C.I. (1996). Encuentro Intercontinental por la Humanidad y contra el Neoliberalismo.>.

Marcos, S.C.I. (1999). Fourth World War. Can be found at

Marcos, S.C.I. (1994). Chiapas: The Southeast in Two Winds -A Storm and a Prophecy. Written in 1992 but not published until January 1, 1994. Can be found at <>.

Marcos, S.C.I. (May, 2003). Siete Pensamientos en Mayo. can be found at and at

Marcos, S.C.I. (Jul 27, 2003). Parte IV: Un Plan. La Jornada can be found at

Marcos. S.C.I. (Aug, 2003). Marcos to NGOs: Zapatistas Don’t Want Charity, but Respect CHIAPAS:The Thirteenth Stele - Part Two: A Death. can be found at

MEChA, Seattle Washington. (1999). Anti-Globalization Workshops and Interviews.

Mexpaz, Newsletter No. 49, CIACH, Chiapas, Mexico, (09 de abril de 1997). Can be found at

McLaren, P. (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution.
Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Mujeres Zapatistas. (1993). La Ley Revolucionaria de Las Mujeres. Can be found at:

Muñoz, C., Jr. (1989). Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement. London and New York: Verso.

Muñoz, G. (Jun 15, 2004). EZLN: 20 y 10. Ecos de una Campaña. Revista Rebeldía. Can be found at and

Notes from November. (2003). We are Everywhere: The Irresistible Rise of Global Anti-Capitalism. Verso, London and New York.

Osorno, D. (1/20/06). Las Palabras de Marcos en la Hormiga. La Fogata. Can be found at

Patton, Q.M. (1987). How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Peraire, O. (no date). Five Years with the EZLN. Nuevo Amanecer Press. Can be found at

Quetzal. (2003). Worksongs. Son Del Barrio Productions. San Jose, CA.

Ramirez, R. & Therrien, M. (March 2001). The Hispanic Population in the US. Census Report can be found at <>

Rolland G. P. (1996). Social Cartography: Mapping Ways of Seeing Social and Educational Change. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London.

Russell, C. A., & Hildner M.R.E. (September-October 1971). Urban Insurgency in Latin America: Its implications for the Future. #Document created: 4 June 04 Air University Review. Can be found at:

Sanders, R. (May, 2002). How to Start a War: The American Use of War Pretext Incidents (1848-1989). Press for Conversation. Can be found at

Schugurinsky, D. (1997). Higher Education Restructuring in the Era of Globalization: Toward a Heteronomous Model? In Comparative Education. Arnove and Torres, Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Schugurensky, D. (2000a). Citizenship Learning and Democratic Engagement: Political Capital Revisited Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings can be found at

Schugurensky, D. (2000b). The forms of informal learning. Towards a conceptualization of the field. Working Paper 19-2000. Presented at the New Approaches for Lifelong Learning (NALL) Fourth Annual Conference, October 6-8. Available online at

Schugurensky, D. (2003). Citizenship Learning and Participatory Democracy: Exploring the Connections. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Seidman, I. (1997). Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Skeels, T. (no date). From Aguascalientes to Caracoles. Can be found at

Stake, R. (1995). The art of case research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 2nd edition. Sage Publications: London.

Stromquist, N. (1996). Mapping Gendered Spaces in Third World Educational Interventions. Found in Rolland G. P. (1996). Social Cartography: Mapping Ways of Seeing Social and Educational Change. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London.

Stromquist, N., ed. (2000). Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Ox29RU, UK.

Stromquist N. (2004). The Educational Nature of Feminist Action. In Foley, G. (2004). Dimensions of Adult Learning: Adult Education and Training in a Global Era. Allen & Unwin. Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia.

Stromquist, N., & Monkman, K. (2002). Education in a Globalized World: The Connectivity of Economic Power, Technology and Knowledge. Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Ox2 9RU, UK.

Vigil, D. (1998). From Indians to Chicanos: The Dynamics of Mexican American Culture 2nd ed.. Prospect Heights, Ill. Waveland Press.

Villoro, L. (Jul, 1996). El Poder y El Valor. In Periódico La Jornada can be found at

Wallerstein, I. (2002). Porto Alegre. Can be found in La Jornada en Internet.

Walter, S. et al. (2004). Economics, Politics and Adult Education. Found in Foley, G. (2004) Dimensions of Adult Learning: Adult Education and Training in a Global Era. Allen & Unwin. Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia.

X, M. (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. For the complete speech please go to <>.

Zebechi, R. (2003). “Los Impactos Del Zapatismo en Latino America.” La Fogata Digital. Can be found at

Zinn, H. (1980). A People's History Of the United States, 1492-Present: U.S. Theft of Mexican Territory. NY: Harper Collins Publishers. Can also be found at>.

Published in In Motion Magazine August 15, 2008.